” Reform [des retraites]it’s two years off for everyone and it’s even worse for women”rose up on Monday, January 23, Béatrice Clicq, Confederal Secretary Force Ouvrière (FO), interviewed by Franceinfo. An inequality denounced by other unions and left-wing political parties.
According to the impact study of the bill presented on Monday by the government, consulted by The world, the reform will have contrasting effects on women. On the one hand, it will push women to prolong their activity a little longer than men. On the other hand, they should ultimately earn more than men. “Caught in [son] together “reform « contribute[e] to reduce the pension gap between the [genres] »assures the executive.
Let’s resume. The text provides for the gradual postponement of the legal age of departure from 1er September: it will be set at 63 years and three months in 2027, then at 64 years in 2030, compared to 62 years currently. This measure will be coupled with an acceleration of the extension of the contribution period provided for by the Touraine law of 2014: it will be necessary to have worked forty-three years from the generation born in 1965, and no longer in 1973, to be eligible for a full pension.
Overall, the average retirement age is expected to rise from just under 63 today to 64.5 for future retirees in their 20s, according to the impact study. Without the reform, the average departure age would have been 64, according to the same document. The French should therefore work six months longer on average. However, this figure hides strong disparities. With regard to the generation born in the 1980s, men will work on average four additional months against eight months more for women.
Elimination of inequalities in the very long term
“Women, to reach their contribution period, use in particular quarters validated by child”recalled the Minister responsible for relations with Parliament, Franck Riester, Monday evening on Public Senate. In effect, “As a mother, you are granted four additional quarters for each child, to compensate for the effects on your retirement of maternity leave during which you no longer contribute to retirement”can we read on the Service-public.fr website. “If your child was born before 2010, you are granted four additional trimesters [par] child in return for his education. “Obviously, if you postpone the legal age, they are penalized a little. We absolutely do not disagree”, admitted Mr. Riester. In concrete terms, women who have acquired enough maternity quarters to leave at 62 or 63 will still have to continue working until they are 64.
Prime Minister Elisabeth Borne tried on Tuesday to put out the fire lit by Mr. Riester. “We protect women who have incomplete and choppy careers, women who started working early, women who have small pensions”she reacted, strongly questioned in the National Assembly on this subject. “The reform will contribute to reducing the pension gap between men and women”she hammered.
This is also the counterpart highlighted in the government document: since the reform will push women to lengthen their careers more than men, this will contribute to “reduce pension gaps” between genders. Women’s pensions are now 40% below those of men, a difference reduced to 28% with survivors’ pensions (a share of a deceased spouse’s pension received by his widow).
The Minister of Labor, Olivier Dussopt, thus underlined during the report of the Council of Ministers that “the average pension for women will be increased by 2.2%” term, against 0.9% for men. The increase is +1% for women of the 1966 generation, and +0.2% for men of the same generation. However, the government study predicts a reduction in inequalities in the very long term:
“The ratio between the average amount of pensions (…) of retired women and retired men (…) should stand at 83% in 2035 and 93% in 2070. (…) The average pension gap between women and men thus remain significant for the generations who will liquidate their pensions over the next decade. »
Women suffer from choppy careers
That “significantly more marked improvement”which the government does not fail to highlight, is also explained because women “benefit more from the measure to increase the minimum pension” – supposed to increase to 85% of the net minimum wage for a full career (i.e. nearly 1,200 euros gross per month, in the short term).
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In fact, women are largely overrepresented among low-income pensioners: “52% of (…) Retired women thus receive a monthly pension of less than 1,000 euros, compared to 20% of men”, points out the impact study. This is partly due to the fact that they are much more likely to have had choppy careers. It is overwhelmingly women who temporarily suspend their career, or even interrupt it, when children arrive in the household. “More women are more likely to work part-time, and have lower wages on average than men”adds the government study. According to the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Insee), whose most recent figures only take the private sector into account, women earn on average 16.8% less than men in full-time equivalent, i.e. for the same volume of work.
Of the approximately 1.8 million current pensioners who will benefit from the revaluation of the minimum pension, 60% are women, according to the executive: they will see their pension increase by 6.7% on average, or 760 euros in more per year, compared to 5.1% (540 euros) for men. According to the government’s impact study, the increase will also benefit future retirees more than their male counterparts: 30% of women will benefit for an increase of 460 euros on average per year, compared to 17% of men, i.e. an increase of 300 euros.